There are numerous types of heart disease, each with its symptoms and treatment options. For some, lifestyle changes and medication can significantly affect their health. Others may require surgery to restore proper thyroid function.
Some of the most common heart disease types are listed below.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) | Heart disease
It is the most common type of heart disease. CAD can cause blockages in your coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to your heart. This can decrease blood flow to your heart muscle, preventing it from receiving the oxygen it requires. The disease typically begins due to atherosclerosis, also known as artery hardening.
Coronary heart disease can cause chest pain, known as angina, or it can lead to a heart attack.
Some factors that cause increase your risk of coronary artery disease include:
- Age (The risk of heart disease increases after the age of 55 for men and sharply after menopause for women.)
- Being dormant
- Diabetes or the metabolic syndrome
- There is a family history of coronary heart disease.
- Blood pressure that is too high
- High LDL “bad” cholesterol levels or low HDL “good” cholesterol levels
Congenital Heart Disease
A person born with a congenital heart defect has a heart defect. Congenital heart defects can take several forms, including the following:
- Atypical heart valves: Valves may fail to open properly or leak blood.
- Septal defects occur when a hole in the wall between the lower and upper chambers of the heart.
- Atresia is a condition in which one of the heart valves is missing.
Congenital heart disease can involve major structural issues, such as unusual connections between the heart’s main arteries or the absence of a ventricle. Many congenital heart defects do not manifest any symptoms and are discovered during a routine medical examination.
Heart murmurs are common in children, according to the American Heart Association (AHA) Trusted Source, but only some are caused by a defect.
When you have an arrhythmia, your heart beats at an irregular rate. Other heart problems frequently cause serious arrhythmias, but they can also occur on their own.
Dilated cardiomyopathy causes the heart chambers to dilate, causing the heart muscle to stretch and thin. Past heart attacks, arrhythmias, and toxins are the most common causes of dilated cardiomyopathy, but genetics can also play a role.
As a result, the heart weakens and cannot pump blood properly. Arrhythmia, heart failure, and blood clots in the heart can all result.
It usually affects people between the ages of 20 and 60.
According to the AHA, this is a reliable source.
It occurs when your heart does not pump blood as efficiently as it should to meet your body’s needs. It is typically caused by coronary artery disease, but it can also occur as a result of thyroid disease, high blood pressure, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), or other conditions.
Heart Valve Disease
The four valves in your heart open and close to direct blood flow between the four chambers of your heart, the lungs, and blood vessels. An abnormality may make it difficult for a valve to open and close properly. When this happens, your blood flow may be obstructed or blood may leak. Your valve might not open and close properly.
Infections such as congenital heart disease, rheumatic fever, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and heart attacks are all causes of heart valve problems.
Heart valve diseases include the following:
Endocarditis. This is a bacterial infection that can enter the bloodstream and take root in your heart during illness, surgery, or the use of intravenous drugs. It frequently occurs if you already have valve issues. Antibiotics can usually cure it, but the disease is fatal if not treated. If your heart valves have been severely damaged by endocarditis, you may require valve replacement surgery.
Rheumatoid heart disease occurs when rheumatic fever, linked to strep throat and scarlet fever, damages your heart muscle and valves. Rheumatic heart disease was more common in the early twentieth century. Doctors can now prevent it by treating the diseases that cause it with antibiotics. The symptoms usually appear years after the infection if you contract it.
This condition is usually caused by a genetic problem that affects the heart muscle. It is usually an inherited condition. Muscle walls thicken, and contractions become more difficult. This impairs the heart’s ability to take in and expel blood. An obstruction may occur in some cases.
There may be no symptoms, and many people go undiagnosed. On the other hand, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can worsen over time and lead to various heart problems.
Anyone with a family history of this condition should get screened, as treatment can help prevent complications.
The most common cause of death from heart disease is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. According to the AHA, trusted sources are among young people and athletes under the age of 35.
Aortic stenosis heart disease
The pulmonary valve is thick or fused in aortic stenosis and does not open properly. This makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood from the left ventricle into the aorta.
It can be present at birth due to congenital valve anomalies or develop over time due to calcium deposits or scarring.
The symptoms of heart disease differ according to the type. Furthermore, some heart diseases have no symptoms at all.
However, the following symptoms may point to a heart problem:
Angina, difficulty breathing; chest pain; fatigue; lightheadedness; edoema, or swelling due to fluid retention. Cyanosis, or a blue tinge to the skin, and the inability to exercise are symptoms of a congenital heart defect in children.
The followings are some signs and symptoms of a heart attack:
- chest pain, shortness of breath
- Palpitations in the heart
- stomach ache and nausea
- arm, jaw, back, or leg pain from sweating
- a feeling of choking
- fatigue from swollen ankles
- an erratic heartbeat
A heart attack can result in cardiac arrest, which occurs when the heart stops beating and the body is unable to function. If a person exhibits any of the symptoms of a heart attack, they should seek immediate medical attention.
Risk factors and their causes
When the following conditions exist, heart disease develops:
- Damage to the entire or a portion of the heart
- a problem with the blood vessels that lead to or from the heart
- a lack of oxygen and nutrients in the heart
- a problem with the heart’s rhythm
In some cases, the cause is genetic. However, certain lifestyle factors and medical conditions can raise the risk. These are some examples:
blood pressure that is too high
- smoking and high cholesterol
- a high alcohol consumption
- being overweight or obese
- having diabetes, and a family history of heart disease
- Dietary choices influence a history of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
- low levels of activity
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- high levels of stress and anxiety
- heart valves that are leaking
Poverty and stress, According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Trusted Source, are two major factors contributing to a global increase in heart and cardiovascular disease.